The different factors responsible for causing threat to biodiversity are as follows: The primary cause of loss of biodiversity is habitat loss or destruction which is resulted due to the large industrial and commercial activities associated with agriculture, irrigation, construction of dams, mining, fishing etc. Also in ex- situ conservation, all of which house whole, protected specimens for breeding and reintroduction into the wild when necessary and possible. (ii) Short-term propagation and release of the animals in their natural habitat. • Generally, they are more expensive to maintain and should be regarded as complementary to in situ conservation methods. It describes diversity of habitat over a total land escape or geographical area. (13) The over exploitation of useful products of wild life should be prevented. It describes the variety in the number and richness of the spices with in a region. Ex-situ Conservation is one of the primary objectives of Botanical Survey of India (BSI). It is especially adapted to species which cannot be established or regenerated outside their natural habitats. The species richness may be defined as the number of species per unit area. The main objective of ex situ techniques is to support conservation by ensuring the survival of threatened species and the maintenance of associated genetic diversity. compel the human beings to preserve them. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Stay tuned with BYJU’S to explore … So, it is highly essential for the human beings to take care of their surrounding species and make optimum use of their service, for better economic development. Mainly the conservation of biodiversity has three basic objectives: (a) To maintain essential ecological processes and life supporting systems. Ex situ conservation Conserving biodiversity outside the areas where they naturally occur is known as ex situ conservation. (iv) It has 10 different biogeographical regions and 25 biotic provinces having varieties of lands and species. (12) The habitats of migratory birds should be protected by bilateral and multilateral agreement. Indirectly it provides economic benefits to people which include water quality soil protection, equalisation of climate, environmental monitoring, scientific research, recreation etc. Some important sanctuaries of Orissa are as follows: Biosphere reserves or natural reserves are multipurpose protected areas with boundaries circumscribed by legislation. The earth’s natural beauty with its colour and hues, thick forest, and graceful beasts has inspired the human beings from their date of birth to take necessary steps for its maintenance. The protected areas are biogeographical areas where biological diversity along with natural and cultural resources are protected, maintained and managed through legal and administrative measures. Ex situ conservation means conservation which takes place off-site. (c) This technique involves only few species. Thus, it is rightly told, survival of the man depends upon the survival of the biosphere. we save the entire forest to save the tiger. The richness of a species tells about the extent of biodiversity of a site and provides a means for comparing different sites. (8) Care should be taken for the development of reserves and protected areas. Wild life Institute of India has divided it into ten biogeographical regions and twenty five biotic provinces. (a) The favourable conditions may not be maintained always. There are two Methods of biodiversity conservation. As per available data, the varieties of species living on the earth are 1753739. zoos, seed banks, captive breeding), the notion of in-situ conservation covers a broad All these services together are valued 16.54 trillion dollars per year. Biodiversity holds great ecological value because it is indispensable to maintain the ecological balance. Ex-Situ Conservation 2. Consequently, some 25 years ago, alternative in vitro approaches were considered. In addition, the habitat fragmentation also brings about microclimatic changes in light, temperature, wind etc. It is one of two basic conservation strategies, alongside in-situ conservation. Conserving … These are the areas where only wild animals (fauna) are present. The activities like grazing forestry, cultivation and habitat manipulation are not permitted in these areas. Refer to these notes for reference. Out of the above species, 134781 are residing in India although surface area of India is 2% of the earth’s surface. Hot spots are the areas with high density of biodiversity or mega diversity which are most threatened at present. The stresses on living organisms due to competition for food, water, space etc. While the identification of ex-situ initiatives leaves little room for ambiguity (e.g. Such type of diversity can generate more productive and stable ecosystems or communities capable of tolerating various types of stresses e.g. (vi) Several crops arose in the country and spread throughout the world. For example, the Gangetic gharial has been reintroduced in the rivers of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan where it had become extinct. (5) There should be sustainable utilisation of resources. … Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. zoo, aquarium, botanical garden etc. These are maintained by government. (vii) There is wide variety of domestic animals like cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, horses etc. All of the ex situ conservation methods discussed have their role to play in modern conservation. The main aim of biosphere reserve is to preserve genetic diversity in representative ecosystems by protecting wild animals, traditional life style of inhabitant and domesticated plant/ animal genetic resources. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. The biosphere reserve net work was intro­duced by UNESCO 1971. Table 5.1: Endangered and Endemic Species of India. are prohibited so that the wild plants and animals can grow and multiply freely without any hindrance. In-situ conservation, the conservation of species in their natural habitats, is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. (10) Public awareness should be created regarding biodiversity and its importance for the living organisms. India is one of the twelve mega diversity nations of the world due to the following reasons: (i) It has 7.3% of the global fauna and 10.88% of global flora as per the data collected by Ministry of Environment and forest. It is the methods of conserving all the living species in the artful habitats that reflect their natural living habitats. There are two types of conservation methods namely in-situ and ex-situ conservations. (6) International trade in wild life should be highly regulated. It involves the in-situ and ex-situ methods. Continue . According to Whittaker (1965), the community diversities are of three types: It tells the species diversity in a given community. (d) These support education and research in various ecological aspects. (v) Advanced technology in the service of endangered species. Here, animals and plants are reared or cultivated in areas like zoological or botanical parks. Protected areas include national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves. The area under a sanctuary remains in between 0.61 to 7818 km. With increased population, the habitats are fragmented into pieces by roads, fields, canals, power lines, towns etc. The magnitude of variation in genes of a species increases with increase in size and environmental parameters of the habitat. Now gametes of threatened species can be preserved in viable and fertile condition for long periods using cryopreservation techniques, eggs can be fertilized in vitro, and plants can be propagated using tissue culture methods. (iv) It provides new varieties of rice, potato etc. 3. The in-situ concept is best understood in contrast to ex-situ conservation. However, when there are situations where an animal or plant is endangered or threatened and needs urgent measures to save it from extinction, ex-situ (off-site) … The discussion on each type of diversity is given below: It describes the variation in the number and types of genes as well as chromosomes present in different species. There are about 89 national parks in India. (c) To make sustainable utilisation of species and ecosystems. Ex-situ (‘off site’) conservation techniques are implemented away from the conservation target's natural habitat. The consumptive value can be assigned to goods such as fuel woods, leaves, forest products etc. Some of the examples of ex-situ conversation are gene banks, germplasm banks, seed banks. The living organisms on earth are of great diversity, living in diverse habitats and possessing diverse qualities and are vital to human existence providing food, shelter, clothing’s, medicines etc. What is Ex-situ Conservation? The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Ex-situ conservation Ex situ or ‘off-site’ conservation means the conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. can be avoided by ex-situ conservation there by providing conditions necessary for a secure life and breeding. Cloudflare Ray ID: 612990e99c550662 This involves conservation of genetic resources, as well as wild and cultivated or species, and draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities. Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. (7) The poaching and hunting of wildlife should be prevented as far as practicable. Ex-situ conservation: This method refers to the conservation of biodiversity in the areas outside their natural habitat such as zoos and botanical gardens. Biodiversity has great economic value because economic development depends upon efficient and economic management of biotic resources. (b) To preserve the diversity of species. Seedbanks, botanical, horti… The protection and management of biodiversity through in situ conservation involve certain specific areas known as protected areas which include national parks, Sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves. 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