A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Version. statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or NOTE: Please be sure that you read and respond to all of the questions according to how you would compare yourself to your same sex peers. My waist                                                                 0          1          2          3          4, 8. My The Body Image Scale largely fulfills the above criteria. We also added a number of questions to Hopwood's original scale during the content validation phase, specifically targeted towards patients with IBD. It includes a 7-point scale that assesses the influence of body image on 19 areas of one's psychosocial functioning (e.g., day-to-day emotions, sexuality, self-confidence, grooming habits, etc.) Our aim was to assess and validate a body image scale specifically for use with patients with IBD. Dissatisfaction was greater in females and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery, as previously found by Muller et al11 and others,10,16 establishing predictive validity. Current Thoughts Scale (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991) – A measure of state self-esteem This is a questionnaire designed to measure what you are thinking at this moment. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) has six items that are used to assess and individual’s evaluative and affective body image state at a given moment in time (Cash, 2008). Finally, it is frequently stated that IBD may lead to significant physical and psychological comorbidity. My forehead                                                            1          2          3          4          5, 14. Correlation between the modified body image scale and the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ) in 338 patients with IBD. Overall, there was a wide range of scores in our patient population. Internal consistency of the baseline scores was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, with levels above 0.7 reflecting high levels of consistency. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Whistance RN, Gilbert R, Fayers P, et al. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. Body image refers to a person's sense of their own physical appearance and to their perception of how others see them. The Impact of Introducing Patient-Reported Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms via Electronic Survey on Clinic Visit Length, Patient and Provider Satisfaction, and the Environment Microbiome, Phenotype and Natural History of Children With Coexistent Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Celiac Disease, Association of Baseline Luminal Narrowing With Ileal Microbial Shifts and Gene Expression Programs and Subsequent Transmural Healing in Pediatric Crohn Disease, Medical Management Following Surgical Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Body Image Dissatisfaction in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Body Image Dissatisfaction: Clinical Features, and Psychosocial Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Getting Personal: A Review of Sexual Functioning, Body Image, and Their Impact on Quality of Life in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Dose of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate–Rich Polyphenon E in Patients With Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis. Eur J Cancer. Three patients declined, 43 did not return the questionnaire, and a further 3 had critical body image data missing. Body image dissatisfaction is commonly found in the general population.1 As an example, 62% of female and 38% of male European university students consider themselves “too fat.”2 High rates of body image dissatisfaction are also found in American university students,3 and the perceived pressure for females to be thin and for males to have a muscular physique frequently impacts on the normal individual's emotional and interpersonal experiences and quality of life.4,5. Linear Regression Analysis Assessing Clinical Factors Associated with Body Image Dissatisfaction in 338 Patients with IBD. . Overall, 8 of the 9 questions achieved the recommended 30% response rate with question 7 achieving a 28% positive response rate. My forehead                                                            0          1          2          3          4, 14. It is interesting that this is the only question that relates to patients' interactions with others rather than personal perceptions about body image, and the low positive response rate may relate to the lack of readily noticeable signs of disease or functional changes in most patients. on a negative (−3) to positive (+3) continuum. Patients scored from 0 (“Not at all”) to 3 (“Very much”) on each question so the lowest possible total score was 0 and the highest 27, with higher scores indicating increasing body image dissatisfaction. BAS items are rated along a 5-point scale (i.e., 1 = never, 2=seldom,3=sometimes,4=often,5=always) and are averaged to obtain an overall body appreciation score. nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts Linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with body image dissatisfaction. Possible scores range from 1 to 9, and higher scores indicate more positive body image. . In a study with 102 undergraduate volunteers (72 women, 30 men) ranging between 18 and 43, they found an average overall score of 70 points (on a scale from 20 to 100). Body image refers to a persons' sense of their own physical appearance. The modified body image scale is a valid tool for assessing body image in patients with IBD. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing the body image scale with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. My feet                                                                    1          2          3          4          5, Physical Appearance State and El Ansari W, Clausen SV, Mabhala A, et al. Search for other works by this author on: Body image and health: contemporary perspectives, How do I look? Relationship between body image, gender, and previous surgery in 338 patients with IBD. It is a multifaceted construct, consisting of perceptual, attitudinal, and behavioural components 1 Cash TF. . My chin                                                                   0          1          2          3          4, 16. Differences between groups were assessed using the Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test as appropriate. Demographic and Clinical Details of 338 IBD Study Patients. The best answer is what you feel is … My Finally, validity needed to be confirmed in a large group of patients with IBD. 1). My wrists                                                                1          2          3          4          5, 12. My lips                                                                    0          1          2          3          4, 11. The score is achieved by summing the 9 items. Forty-five patients had a body image scale score of 0 and the median score was 6. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) is a six-item measure of individuals’ evaluation and affect about their physical appearance at a particular moment in time. Methods: Participants (N = 459) ranged in age from 18 general I feel anxious, tense, or nervous about: 1. However, factor analysis revealed that these additional items formed a separate factor, reduced predictive ability when compared with the original scale and reduced internal reliability. Body image perceptions among university students from England and Denmark, Measuring “negative body image”: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in a nonclinical population, The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies, Body talk among college men: content, correlates, and effects, Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, Body image of women with rheumatoid arthritis, Body image disturbance in patients with Acne Vulgaris, Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, and dyadic adjustment associated with dialysis type in chronic renal failure, Patient-reported body image and cosmesis outcomes following kidney surgery: comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site, laparoscopic, and open surgery, Female gender and surgery impair relationships, body image, and sexuality in inflammatory bowel disease: patient perceptions. Being useful among persons aged over 65: social representations from a cross-sectional European study. Second, the questionnaire needed to be appropriate for both patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to consider the effects of treatment and disease. stomach                                                             0          1          2          3          4, 6. These assessed dissatisfaction related to body odor and noise, both potentially pertinent to our patient population. Body Image Assessments: Ordering Information IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: Place the measures you desire into your shopping cart. These body images tend to reflect thin, Anglo American women, from a middle to upper class status, as the norm of healthy and beautiful (Abrams and Stormer, 2002). Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately … Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N= 502) and middle‐aged women (N= 151).Scales used were (a) surveillance (viewing the body as an outside observer), (b) body shame (feeling shame when the body does not conform), and (c) … A higher score suggest better body image and a low score indicates a negative body image. Rating scale is recommended for persons age 3 years and older. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. The original scale included a question “Have you been dissatisfied with the appearance of your scar?”. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. The sample was 55% European American, 30% African American, 8% Asian, and 7% from other minorities. The Body Image States Scale105. Muller KR, Prosser R, Bampton P, et al. My hips                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 5. These items were deemed to be measuring a different construct, and were excluded from the modified scale. measure of body image that has two comparable versions which can be used with both females and males. Scores of 40 or above are strongly suggestive of a diagnosis of BDD. Item numbers 2, 3, and 5 are reverse scored. 2001 Jan;37(2):189-97 (PubMed Abstract) each statement holds true in general. Reprints: Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland (e-mail: hemulc@hotmail.com). My waist                                                                 1          2          3          4          5, 8. Test–retest reliability was measured using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. My wrists                                                                0          1          2          3          4, 12. now, I feel anxious, tense, or nervous about: 1. In the development of the original scale, Hopwood et al14 described the process of item generation and scale construction, using “the literature, discussion with health professionals, and extensive interviews with breast cancer patients.” We assessed content validity of the scale in our IBD population with a team of multidisciplinary health care professionals involved in the care of patients with IBD. thighs                                                                0          1          2          3          4, 3. The Portuguese version of the body image scale (BIS)—psychometric properties in a sample of breast cancer patients, Assessment of body image in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, Enhancing quality of life in medical populations: a vision for body image assessment and rehabilitation as standards of care. My The The purpose of this study was to measure body image distortion using an online visual scale which included 9 figures representing different body sizes. affected body image. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) was designed to address the lack of state mindfulness measurements in psychological literature and is based on the MAAS (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Developed 25 years ago by Don Henneke, PhD, as part of his doctoral research, the BCS scale ranges from 1 (poor) to 9 (obese). Right First, the questions needed to focus on body image satisfaction, rather than psychological or cognitive behavior, to facilitate its use by gastroenterologists and provide a clear message for clinicians to understand and interpret. Body esteem (BE) refers to self-evaluations of one's body or appearance. nervous you feel right now about your Frequency of body image scale scores in 338 patients with IBD. Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, Al Ghazal S. A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Reliability was confirmed with a test–retest correlation of 0.82 (P < 0.001). There is, of course, no right answer for any statement. Psychometric properties of the body image scale were assessed in a number of ways. extent to which I look overweight                    1          2          3          4          5, 2. Linear regression analysis indicated that body image was unrelated to disease type (P = 0.77) and confirmed that younger age, female gender, and both nonstoma and stoma forming surgery were independently associated with body image dissatisfaction (Table 2). Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Using computer generated bodies improves on the drawn stimuli used in previous figure rating scales (e.g., Stunkard et al., 1983; Thompson & Gray, 1995). Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution explaining 65% of the variance. After approval of your purchase by charge card or by PayPal on our secure server, you will receive your materials as email attachments within 72 weekday hours. In Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS):  Trait Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Changes in physical appearance, function, and body integrity are central to the experience of both health and illness, and future IBD projects will require validated and concise questionnaires on a range of topics such as body image to acquire reliable results. Data from another scale, the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, were also collected in addition to demographic and clinical data. Yes No Score 0 1 Scoring: Sum the scores for each question. Physical Appearance State and Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS): Trait Version The statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts of your body. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for patients with symptomatic urachal remnants: an experience with 57 patients. Body Comparison Scale (BCS) For the items below, use the following scale to rate how often you compare these aspects of your body to those of other individuals of the same sex. The study therefore included 338 patients whose demographic and clinical details are shown in Table 1. Ask the person to choose the face that best describes how he is feeling. My ears                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 10. Figure 4 shows the association between the modified Body Image Scale and the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. extent to which I look overweight                    0          1          2          3          4, 2. Previous guidelines suggest an appropriate response rate of greater than 30%.14 Principal componant analysis with varimax rotation was employed to assess the structure and content validity of the scale (factoral validity). Analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). Figure 2 shows the response prevalence to individual questions. Physical Appearance State and From a clinical point of view, it would be helpful to identify patients with body image alterations who might benefit from simple or more complex psychological interventions. We modified Hopwood's original 10-item questionnaire by excluding the question “Have you been dissatisfied with the appearance of your scar?” as described in the methods section above. A better understanding of the appreciation for one’s body, the higher the prediction of behaviors that can become problematic in various populations. The BAS or Body Appreciation Scale is another measure of body image. The ideal body image is represented as a predominantly thin, able-bodied young Anglo woman. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was developed within a cognitive behavioral framework and focuses on the psychosocial impact of body image disturbance. The BISS … The scale has been adapted in many languages and utilized to study body image and cultural influence in many countries. Body image was evaluated by using the Body Image Scale (BIS) [22], a ten-item scale with four possible responses: 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (quite a bit), and 3 (very much). My chin                                                                   1          2          3          4          5, 16. Body Mass Index (BMI; kg weight/m2height) averaged 25.0 (SD= 4.1) for men and 24.7 (SD= 6.3) for women. . The Response prevalence, i.e., the frequency with which a score of 1 or more was obtained for each question, was determined. The Physical Appearance State Body Image Survey Scoring Instrument (Cont’d) 12. Responsiveness has previously been demonstrated in the original development of the scale with a significant increase in the reporting of body image dissatisfaction after surgery,14 but responsiveness in patients with IBD will require a longitudinal study of patients either undergoing changes to their medical treatment or surgery. Body image disturbance questionnaire—Scoliosis Version: discriminant validity in AIS. Internal consistency of the body image scale was demonstrated with a Cronbach alpha of 0.93. Higher scores reflect greater body appreciation. My The authors also thank Dr. Penelope Hopwood for permission to use the body image scale and Ms. Margaret McDermott for her helpful comments during manuscript preparation. Three hundred eighty-seven patients attending ambulatory clinics in 1 of 2 medical centers, between July 2011 and November 2012, were invited to participate in the study. Their ages ranged from 17 to 54 years (median = 20), and 85% were unmarried. It has 35 items (such as "scent" or "nose") that need to be rated on a 5 point scale, ranging from strong negative feelings to strong positive feelings. The Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Copyright © 2021 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation. Brief word instructions: Point to each face using the words to describe the pain intensity. The authors would like to acknowledge Boston Scientific for funding Dr. Edel McDermott as a University College Dublin Newman Research Fellow for this study. The emerging role of mood disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases. We sought to identify a body image tool that met specific requirements. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Edel McDermott, MB, Jenny Moloney, BSc, Niamh Rafter, BComm, Denise Keegan, RGN, Kathryn Byrne, BSc, Glen A. Doherty, PhD, Garret Cullen, MD, Kevin Malone, MD, Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, The Body Image Scale: A Simple and Valid Tool for Assessing Body Image Dissatisfaction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 20, Issue 2, 1 February 2014, Pages 286–290, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4. Introduction: Body image distortion (BID) is a risk factor, which can lead to eating disorders problems. Its 2-week test–retest was found to be 0.82 (Cash & Grasso, 2005). Body image refers to how we think about, feel and act towards our body. muscle tone                                                      1          2          3          4          5, 9. In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. Remember there are no right or wrong answers. We found a close correlation between our modified 9-item scale and the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, thus establishing convergent validity. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing the body image scale with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire.3 This body image tool has a different format to the body image scale, with both quantitative and qualitative components, and has been validated in patient cohorts and in healthy students.3,8 We felt this was relevant to our IBD population, whose disease is frequently diagnosed in young adulthood. Nevertheless, factor analysis confirmed that the scale is a unitary measure of body image disturbance and the questionnaire's internal consistency was excellent. One of the few available instruments for body esteem, the Body Esteem Scale investigates characteristics in young women and young men related to body esteem. Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution explaining 65% of the variance, indicating that the 9-item scale performed well on scale structure testing. Females (P < 0.001) and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery experienced more body image dissatisfaction (P = 0.002), indicating predictive validity. Version. Question 7, “Do you avoid people because of the way you feel about your appearance?” received the lowest positive response rate at 28%. . The previous chapter briefly introduced a few perspectives on testing, with anemphasis on validity as a measure of the effectiveness of test scores.Validity is an overarching issue that encompasses all stages in the testdevelopment and administration processes, from blueprint to bubble sheet,including the stage wherein we choose the empirical operations that willassign numbers or labels to t… thighs                                                                1          2          3          4          5, 3. . Bowe WP, Doyle AK, Crerand CE, et al. . Test–retest reliability was demonstrated between body image scores performed a median of 11 months apart (range, 2 wk–18 mo) (rs, 0.82; P < 0.001 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). An individual's body image may change in response to aging, media and advertising exposure, previous life events, and both positive or negative interpersonal experiences. Moreira H, Silva S, Marques A, et al. Figure 5 shows the association between body image, gender, and previous surgery. Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64. Body image has a major influence on social interactions and relationships, and individuals with a negative body image may experience feelings of shame, embarrassment, and anxiety about their physical appearance. We therefore excluded this question. Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS):  State Cash TF, Phillips KA, Santos MT, et al. buttocks                                                            0          1          2          3          4, 4. References Franzoi, S.L. Oyekcin DG, Gulpek D, Sahin EM, et al. It has been tested and validated on a broad range of cancer patients, and coverage has proved acceptable to both male and female patients with a range of body image concerns.14,15 The scale is not specific to any 1 disease and focuses on the effects of both disease and treatment on body image. 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Tested using a combination of validation techniques single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for patients with IBD this study measure... Range of scores in 338 patients with IBD a, et al reading of baseline... Urachal remnants: an experience with 57 patients diverse medical conditions finally, is. Towards our body RN, Gilbert R, Bampton P, et al influenced by a number of ways sense... Prevalence, i.e., the frequency with which a score of 1 or more was for... Representations from a cross-sectional European study the number that best indicates the extent to which each holds...