The poachers are from outside the national park and the buffer zone but it is strongly believed that they can never approach these areas without the support of the local people. [2], Due to the severe amount of poaching for its musk gland, the deer population is continuing to decrease. Answer. It is expected that the population will be reduced to at least 30% over the next three generations. At the international level, trading musk is controlled through CITES. Located in the Himalayan Highlands with an elevation ranging from 1,160 m (3,810 ft) (near Phata) to the Chaukhamba peak at 7,068 m (23,189 ft), it was a notified reserve forest between 1916 and 1920. Conservation works get further delayed as sanctuaries receive money towards the end of the … The entire 14 km (9 mi) route from Gaurikund to Kedarnath temple (3,584 m or 11,759 ft) passes through the sanctuary in uttrakhand. Achievements in the Life Sciences, 8(1), 65–71. [6][10] It is host to temperate forests in the middle altitudes; higher elevations are dotted by coniferous, sub-alpine and alpine forests, and further up by alpine grasslands and high-altitude Bugyals. Despite its high price, musk tinctures were used in perfumery until 1979, when musk deer were protected as an endangered species by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Rara National Park, Makalu Barun National Park, Sagarmatha National Park, Shey-Phoksundo National Park, Khaptad National Park, Langtang National Park, Kanchanjunga Conservation Area, Manasalu conservation area and Annapurna Conservation Area (Aryal, 2005, HMG/Nepal, 2002). It has large ears, a very short tail, no antlers, and the male has long upper canine teeth that project downward from the mouth as tusks. The majority of their diet consists mostly of lichens, pine needles, leaves, and tree barks. In India, large population of musk deer can be found in well-secured protected areas and its population is unknown. Some of them are Annapurna Conservation Area, Sagarmatha National Park, Langtang National Park, Kanchanjunga Conservation Area, and others. Its meat is also consumed as a delicacy. Watch. [2][18][19], Chaukhamba peak, northern boundary of sanctuary, Kala, C.P. We studied anthropogenic pressure on the musk deer population in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal. [3], Siberia, North Mongolia, Russia, North China and Korea - M. m. moschiferus. The conservation … It takes approximately a year for the Siberian musk deer to reach maturity with an average deer living 10 – 14 years. Available at: "Fanged deer not extinct, still roaming the mountains of Afghanistan", "Moschus moschiferus (Siberian musk deer)", "Inside the cloning factory that creates 500 new animals a day", https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/fanged-deer-not-extinct-still-roaming-mountains-afghanistan-180953228/, "Species profile: Moschus moschiferus, Siberian musk deer", "Species profile: Siberian Musk Deer - Moschus moschiferus", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Siberian_musk_deer&oldid=999497369, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Russian Federation, Sakhalin population: 600-500, Russian Federation, the Eastern Siberian population: 27,000-30,000, Russian Federation, Far Eastern population: 150,000, Democratic People's Republic of Korea: unknown, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 13:55. But the funds are meant for the protection and conservation of the entire wildlife in the habitat, and not for musk deer alone. The Government of Nepal protected musk deer as Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, … The South West summer monsoon rains recorded is the mean annual precipitation of 3,093 mm (122 in). 6.5.1. Musk deer potential distribution area inside and outside the protected areas of Nepal. Generally, the musk deer population has been declining due to over-hunting for musk and to loss of habitats. 1–8. 874–881. It is internationally important for the diversity of its flora and fauna (particularly of ungulate species). Musk Deer Farm, Mandal Called kastura in Hindi, the musk deer can be identified by its thick, bristly brown coat, speckled with white on the flanks, the white stockings and a bare tail, which nestles in thick rump hair. The park spreading over 10,000 square km in five districts of Gilgit Baltistan and according to the locals it is a natural habitat for different species of wild animals including some rare species of birds. Conservation Biology, 2005, 19: 368-378http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00602.x/abstract, Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, "Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows", "Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary - Wild Beauty", "Tiger spotted in Kedarnath at 3,400m altitude", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kedarnath_Wildlife_Sanctuary&oldid=996953661, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 09:51. Its alternate name comes from its primary purpose of protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer. Previous article in … Yang, Q., Meng, X., Xia, L. and Feng, Z. Cholestanol, cholesterol, androsterone, Δ4-3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostene, 5β,3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostane, 5α,3β,17α-dihydroxyandrostane, 5β,3α,17β-dihydroxyandrostane and 5β,3α,17α-dihydroxyandrostane can be isolated from the steroid fraction. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and facial glands and by possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland. By 1970, India only had five national parks. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2) is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Edit. Sagarmatha National Park The Sagarmatha (Mt. • Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir • Kanchendzonga National Park, Sikkim. The musk deer is a small compact deer. Management Plan for Sagarmatha National Park and its Buffer Zone 2016-2020 Musk deer is commonly found in SNP between 2,500 − 4,000 m where the area is covered by Birch (Betula utilis), Fir (Abies spp.) In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom (2000) and also under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. Uttarakhand is home to rare species of plants and animals, many of which are protected by sanctuaries and reserves. The primates recorded are rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and common langur (Presbytis entellus). During periods of winter, musk deer can survive in even poorer food quality ranging in foods that are low in proteins but are high in energy and can be easily digested.[6]. Known as ‘The Green Paradise of India’, Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary is secured amidst the snow capped peak in the majestic Kumaon Himalayas at a range of 5412 feet. Erfahren Sie alles zu den Maßnahmen in unseren Märkten, zu Ihrem Einkauf und zur Liefersituation während der COVID-19-Pandemie. 3-Methylpentadecanone (muscone) was not identified among the secretion lipids.[11]. The local Hindu culture is also imbibed by the Bhotiyas (may be with some Tibetan link) who have pastoral work culture and are an integral part of the valleys. The Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus) is an endangered species of musk deer native to Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan.Recent studies have shown that the species is also native to western Nepal. The Temple Committee maintains Dharamshalas (rest houses or inns) for use by pilgrims and tourists at Trijuginarayan, Dougalbitta, Mandal, Gaurikund and Kedarnath. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has categorized Musk Deer as Endangered species and their population is found to be decreasing year by year since they are being poached for their musk. Rishikesh is the nearest rail head at a distance of 212 km (132 mi) from Chopta. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.09.006, National Geographic Channel. In addition, there is an urgent need to give this species total protection in national parks and wildlife reserves in order to preserve genetic diversity and 6.5.1. Males grow the teeth for display instead of antlers.[8][9]. This species was originally described as a subspecies to the alpine musk deer, but is now classified as a separate species.The deer stand at 60 cm (2.0 ft) tall, and only males … While placing the various branches around the circle, the deer will often do an olfactory examination and turn the back of its body towards the marked territories. Due to biodiversity present in state 12 percent of total geographical area is protected areas which includes 6 National Park, 7 Wildlife Sanctuary, 4 Conservation Reserve & 1 Biosphere Reserve. The management of the wildlife sanctuary is done by the Uttarakhand Forest department. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. [2][3] Lakes, waterfall and high-rise mountain peaks abound in this forest belt, as do a number of old Hindu pilgrimage sites - Madhyamaheshwar, Tungnath, Rudranath, Kedarnath, Triyuginarayan and Kalpeshwar all are located within or on the periphery of the sanctuary. On the basis of rainfall of 3,050 mm (120 in) recorded near Tungnath in 1979-81, the monsoon rain (June to September) was about 81% while snow precipitation during December–March was 11%. Musk Deer Status, Distribution and Potential Habitat in PAs. Musk deers are among the premium animals, available only through purchasing diamonds with real money. However, the Chinese government is greatly concerned with wildlife protection today. Further, there are reports of the finding of the musk deer outside the protected area of Nepal. It is one of the popular offbeat places in Uttarakhand located at a short distance of 54 kilometres from Pithoragarh near Askot. [1] Consisting of an area of 975 km2 (376 sq mi), it is the largest protected area in the western Himalayas.It is famous for alpine musk deer, Himalayan Thar, Himalayan Griffon, Himalayan Black bear, Snow Leopard and other flora park and fauna. These are the Mandani, Madhyamaheshwar, Tungnath, Ansuya Devi and Rudranath. The Divisional Forest Officer(DFO) Kedarnath Wildlife Division is responsible for scientific management of the wildlife sanctuary as per the approved management plan. Musk deer are found in the various protected area located in the higher elevation. ). Musk Deer are differentiated as a subfamily of the Cervidae and bear four sub-species called Moschus chrysogaster (Himalayan Musk Deer), Moschus berezovskii (Dwarf Musk Deer), Moschus moschiferus (Siberian Musk Deer) and Moschus fuscus (Black Musk Deer). Musk deer are found in the various protected area located in the higher elevation. In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom (2000) and also under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. It lies within the larger Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows of alpine ecoregion of India, Nepal and Tibet,[6] The sanctuary is at its higher altitudes is characterised by glaciers which through glacial action over centuries have created deep "v" shaped valleys. The decline of the Siberian Musk Deer's population began in China where most of the deer population was abundant. The permission of trekking, camping or conducting scientific study inside the sanctuary is provided by DFO Kedarnath. It is an endangered animal. Its inclusion in the list is a confirmation of outstanding interest … [2][7], The sanctuary is reputed to be one of the world’s richest bio-reserves. [15] The sanctuary includes a breeding center at Kharchula Kharak, both to help advance understanding of the animal's conservation requirements and to breed it in captivity for reintroduction to the wild. • Carnivores are: Indian jackal (Canis aureus indicus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) (V), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula), leopard cat (Felis bengalensis), Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) (V) and snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Musk deer (Moschus moschiferus): Reinvestigation of main lipid components from preputial gland secretion. Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, also called the Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary, is a wildlife sanctuary declared under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and located in Uttarakhand, India. Language. After the 1980s, the production begins to steadily decline due to hunting for their musk glands. In the Mandakini River, fishes recorded include Schizothorax sp., mahseer Tor tor, Labeo spp., Gara spp., Barilius spp., Nemacheilus sp. Siberian Musk deer have a preference for easily digestible nutritious foods. Linkin Park wissen sich zu inszenieren: cooles Artwork, auffällige Musikvideos (etwa das Anime zu Breaking the habit), schickes Booklet mit Lyrics, Linernotes, Fotos. The major part of the killing tools represented … Despite being commonly called deer, they are not true deer belonging to the family Cervidae. The park spreading over 10,000 square km in five districts of Gilgit Baltistan and according to the locals it is a natural habitat for different species of … [2], The sanctuary straddles a geographically diverse landscape and transitional environment. Anyone who illegally hunts, catches, sells, or trades musk and deer will be prosecuted. Among the smaller mammals are Hodgsons's brown-toothed shrew (Episoriculus caudatus), red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), and Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei). Maksimova, D. A., Seryodkin, I. V., Zaitsev, V. A., & Miquelle, D. G. (2014). Hunters catch and kill the deer using snares. It is possible to remove the gland without killing the deer, but this is seldom done. It is hunted for its musk gland, which fetches prices as high as $45,000 per kilogram. The number of visitors to the Kedarnath shrine, who passed through the sanctuary, was 5,57,923 in 2007 as against 87,629 in 1987, a quantum jump in 20 years. To date, 15 mammal species and 150 bird species have been documented in the park, including Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) and Himalayan snowcock … … Visiting season is from April to June and again from September to November. For nature lovers, the ride from Pithoragarh to Askot during spring is mesmerizing, filled … Park protection Poaching of Musk Deer for musk pod, Himalayan Black Bear for bile, and Himalayan Tahr, Danphe and Monal for meat are the main threats in Langtang National Park. Musk deer farming, therefore, has become one of the most appropriate ways to protect and utilize musk deer resources. They are poached for its pod, which is valued at US$45,000 (Indian Rs 2 million) per 25 kg (55 lb) that is used in cosmetics. Aconitum balfourii, Angelica glauca, Arnebia benthamii, Artemisia maritima, Bergenia stracheyi, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea are among the threatened medicinal plant species of the sanctuary. This results in severe cold conditions. V. E. Sokolov, M. Z. Kagan, V. S. Vasilieva, V. I. Prihodko and E. P. Zinkevich, Journal of Chemical Ecology, January 1987, Volume 13, Issue 1, pages 71-83. The Siberian musk deer ( Moschus moschiferus) is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. D V S Khati, chief wildlife warden of the state, says, the protected areas where musk deer can be found receive between Rs 2 and 5 crore, depending on their expanse. Everest) National Park (SNP) was established in 1976 and covered 1148 km2 of the Himalayan ecological zone in the Khumbu region of Nepal. It is believed that these farms will play a significant role in musk deer welfare and conservation. The Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is classified as an “Endangered” species by the IUCN Red list category. In addition, there should be international control of the musk trade to aid in the survival of this species. We studied anthropogenic pressure on the musk deer population in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal. and Balitora brucei. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve). Musk deer are found in 9 protected areas of Nepal viz. Most Siberian musk deer are generally nocturnal inhabiting the mountainous taiga and found in shrub-covered slopes where foods are abundant. Other temples, though not of matching importance, have strong legends related to the epic Mahabharata days. [2], A typical temperate to sub-arctic climate prevails in the locale of the sanctuary. Park protection Poaching of Musk Deer for musk pod, Himalayan Black Bear for bile, and Himalayan Tahr, Danphe and Monal for meat are the main threats in Langtang National Park. The questionnaire survey was applied from October to November 2018. Despite being a protected species under the Forest and Nature Conservation Act of Bhutan, the alpine musk deer is targeted by poachers for its musk pod, with an estimated 100 deer killed in Bhutan each year. [1][2][3][15][16], Other scientific activities centered around the sanctuary have been: the high-altitude botanical field station established at Tungnath (3,500 m or 11,500 ft) by the Garhwal University; further ecological studies of the ungulates; WWF on ecology of the Himalayan musk deer and other ungulates near Tungnath, together with surveys of the mammalian fauna and avifauna; and fish fauna studies in the Mandakini River.[2]. [8] This temple dates to the 8th century. Deer musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Ancistrodon himalayanus) (common) and Boulenger's keelback (Hebius parallelum). National Park, Rara National Park, Khaptad National Park, and Makalu Barun National Park [4]. The Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. Siberian musk deer preputial gland secretions are constituted of free fatty acids and phenols (10%), waxes (38%) and steroids. Tusks that are longer and stronger create a more intimidating stance and become more attractive to females as the offspring of that male are likely to become healthier. [1][2] Since 1972, the area of the park has expanded from 967–975 ha (2,390–2,409 acres). A distinct subspecies roams the island of Sakhalin. [12], Media related to Moschus moschiferus at Wikimedia Commons. The rocky location provides crevices and crags for the musk deer to hide from many predators, such as lynx and wolverines. Furthermore, the Chinese government has also established many national and provincial nature reserves as wildlife refuges, most of which are established within musk deer range and have the potential to improve the protection of musk deer in China. The sanctuary has a large number of Hindu temples located within its precincts. The Indian musk deer bears the tendency to be more secretive and they are easily seen either … The poachers are from outside the national park and the buffer zone but it is strongly believed that they can never approach these areas without the support of the local people. In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom (2000) and also under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. Once the male and the female deer have procreated, the females will become pregnant lasting over 6 months and can give birth to 1-3 offspring, usually between the months of May through June. It has reportedly pharmaceutical properties also. Their small shape allows them to hide from predators through tiny openings in the rocky terrain and also allow them to run exceptionally fast from their predators. The musk deers are also protected under the National Parks which accounts for approximately 13% of the Siberian Musk Deer population. It is internationally important for the diversity of its flora and fauna (particularly of ungulate species). [1][14][15] These deer dwell generally live alone at a density of 3-4 animals per square kilometer in meadows, fell-fields, shrublands or first forests. Is from April to June and again from September to November 2600 m. Adults are small, weighing kg! 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Where foods are abundant world ’ s richest bio-reserves traps and killed funds meant... Identified among the secretion lipids. [ 8 ] [ 18 ] [ ]! An adult male has a gland under the National parks in India large... Annapurna conservation area, and climate change, many of which are protected law!